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What does et al. mean? When should I use it?

et al. is a Latin abbreviation and means 'and others'. It is used in in-text citations where there are more than three authors. The full reference should include all authors' names.

For example, a full reference of:

Van Driel, J.H., Verloop, N., Van Werven, H.I. & Dekkers, H. (1997) 'Teachers' craft knowledge and curriculum innovation in higher engineering education', Higher Education 34, pp. 105-122.

would appear as Van Driel et al. (1997) or (Van Driel et al.,1997).

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